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What is the solar panels?

solar panel

Solar panel is by absorbing sunlight, the Solar radiation through the photoelectric effect or photochemical effect directly or indirectly converted into electrical energy device, the main material of most of the Solar panel as the "silicon", but because of the production cost is very big, so much so that it can't be extensive and widespread use. Compared to common batteries and circulating rechargeable batteries, solar cells belong to more energy conservation and environmental protection green products.

Main material: silicon" 

Source: solar power

Whether or not renewable:reproducible

contamination index:low

Structure editor 

1) toughened glass Its role to protect the power subject (e.g., battery), pervious to light the selection is required, 1. High light transmittance must (generally more than 91%); 2. Super white steel processing

2) EVA fixed toughened glass used for bonding and generator main body (e.g., battery), the merits of the transparent EVA material directly affect the life of the components, exposed to the air in the EVA aging yellow, thus affect the light transmittance of the component, thus affect the quality of the component's power in addition to the quality of EVA itself, the component manufacturer of laminating process influence is very big, such as EVA adhesive degree is not up to standard, EVA and toughened glass, the back adhesive strength is not enough, will cause EVA early ageing, affecting the service life of components. Main effect of 

3)Cell main effect is power generation, power generation main market is the mainstream in the crystalline silicon solar cells, thin film solar cells, both have their own advantages and disadvantages. Crystalline silicon solar cell, the equipment cost is relatively low, but consumption and cell costs are high, but the photoelectric conversion efficiency is high, in the outdoor sun power is more suitable for thin film solar cells, relatively high equipment cost, but low consumption and cost of batteries, but the photoelectric conversion efficiency relative to crystalline silicon cells in half, but weak light effect is very good, in the ordinary light also can power generation, such as the solar cells on the calculator.

      4) EVA as above, the main bonding encapsulation power main body and the back 

      5) back, sealing, insulation, waterproof (usually with TPT, TPE and so on material must be resistant to ageing, most of the components manufacturers warranty for 25 years, toughened glass, aluminum alloy is generally no problem, the key is in the back and the silicone can meet the requirements.)

      6) layer pressure, seal, support role 

      7) junction box to protect the whole power generation system, have the effect of current transit, if the component junction box automatically disconnect short circuit battery series, to prevent burn out the whole system connection box is most critical in the selection of diodes, depending on the type of component inside the cell Different, the corresponding diode is not the same 

      8) silicone sealing function, which is used to seal components and aluminum alloy frame, the component and junction box at the junction of some companies use double-sided tape, foam instead of silicone, domestic commonly used silica gel, the craft is simple, convenient, easy to operate, and low cost.

Material classification editor

At present, the crystalline silicon materials (including polycrystalline and monocrystalline silicon) is the main photovoltaic material, its market share of over 90%, and in the future a long time also is still the mainstream of solar cell materials. Polysilicon material production technology for a long time to master in three countries such as America, Japan, Germany into the hands of seven companies 10 factories, forming technology blockade, the condition of market monopoly. Polysilicon demand mainly comes from the semiconductor and solar cells. According to the requirements of the purity is different, divided into electronic level and solar energy. Among them, to the electronic level polysilicon accounts for about 55%, solar energy polysilicon (45%), with the rapid development of photovoltaic industry, the demand for polysilicon solar cell is growing faster than the development of semiconductor polysilicon, more than 2008 solar polysilicon demand expected to electronic grade polysilicon. Only 69 mw solar cell production worldwide in 1994, and is close to 1200 mw in 2004, increased by 17 times in just a decade

Crystalline silicon panels: polysilicon solar cell, monocrystalline silicon solar cells.
Amorphous silicon panels:Thin film solar cells, organic solar cells.
     Chemical dye panels:Dye-sensitised solar cells.
Flexible solar cells

monocrystalline silicon

Monocrystalline silicon solar battery photoelectric conversion efficiency is about 15%, the highest of 24%, this is all kinds of solar cells photoelectric conversion efficiency highest, but the production cost is very big, so it can not be used widely. Due to the commonly used single crystal silicon and waterproof resin toughened glass encapsulation, so its durable, generally can amount to 15 years, the service life of up to 25 years.

polycrystalline silicon

      The making craft of polycrystalline silicon solar cell and single crystal silicon solar cells is similar, but the photoelectric conversion efficiency is to reduce a lot of polysilicon solar cell, the photoelectric conversion efficiency is about 12% (on July 1, 2004, Japan's sharp market efficiency as 14.8% of the world's highest efficiency of polycrystalline silicon solar cells). The production cost is cheaper than monocrystalline silicon solar cells, material is very simple, save energy consumption, the total production cost is low, so get a lot of development. In addition, the service life of the polycrystalline silicon solar cells will also be shorter than monocrystalline silicon solar cells. As for the price performance ratio, monocrystalline silicon solar cell is slightly better.

Amorphous silicon

       The making craft of polycrystalline silicon solar cell and single crystal silicon solar cells is similar, but the photoelectric conversion efficiency is to reduce a lot of polysilicon solar cell, the photoelectric conversion efficiency is about 12% (on July 1, 2004, Japan's sharp market efficiency as 14.8% of the world's highest efficiency of polycrystalline silicon solar cells). The production cost is cheaper than monocrystalline silicon solar cells, material is very simple, save energy consumption, the total production cost is low, so get a lot of development. In addition, the service life of the polycrystalline silicon solar cells will also be shorter than monocrystalline silicon solar cells. As for the price performance ratio, monocrystalline silicon solar cell is slightly better.

polycompound 

Multivariate compound solar battery refers to is not made of single element semiconductor solar cells. Study of variety, most have not been industrialized production, mainly has the following kinds: a) cadmium sulphide solar cell b) gallium arsenide solar battery c) copper indium selenium solar cells (new band gap gradient Cu (In, Ga) Se2 thin film solar cells)

Cu (In, Ga) Se2 is a kind of excellent performance sunlight absorption material, with a gradient band gap (between the conduction band and valence band linewidth.the) multivariate semiconductor material, can expand solar absorption spectrum, the photoelectric conversion efficiency can be improved. Based on it can design the photoelectric conversion efficiency than silicon thin film solar cells, thin film solar cells increased significantly. Can achieve the photoelectric conversion rate is 18%, and, so far, this kind of thin film solar cells, optical radiation cause performance degradation effect has not been found (SWE), the photoelectric conversion efficiency higher than that of commercial film solar panels about 50 ~ 75%, and in the thin film solar cells belong to the highest level of photoelectric conversion efficiency of the world.

flexible cell

The flexible thin-film solar cells are relative to the conventional solar cells to differentiate.

Conventional solar cells are typically between two layers of glass is EVA material and the structure of the cell, so the components of the heavier weight, install, need support, not easy to move.
Flexible thin-film solar cells do not need to use glass back and cover plate, weight 80% lighter than the double deck glass of solar cell components, use PVC back and ETFE film flat flexible cell can be bent freely, even convenient to carry. To install, also do not need special support, can be installed on the roof, and using on the top of the tent.

The disadvantage is that the photoelectric conversion efficiency than conventional crystalline silicon components is low.

Application field editor

1. User solar power: (1) small power range of 10-100 - w, as used in remote areas without electricity, island, pastoral areas, border posts and other military and civilian life electricity, such as lighting, TV, radio, etc.; (2) 3-5 kw home roof grid-connected power generation system; Photovoltaic pump (3) : solve deep Wells without electricity, irrigation.

2. Transportation: such as beacon light, traffic/railway signal lights, traffic warning signs lights, yu xiang street light, high altitude obstacle lights, highway/railway wireless phone booth, unattended class power supply, etc.  

3. Communication/communication: solar unattended microwave relay station, fiber optic cable maintenance station, radio/communication/paging power system; Photovoltaic systems, small rural carrier telephone communication machine, soldiers GPS power supply, etc.

4. Oil, ocean, meteorology, petroleum pipeline and reservoir gate cathodic protection solar power supply system, oil RIGS and emergency power, Marine life testing equipment, weather/hydrological observation equipment, etc.

5. Power of lamps and lanterns: such as the courtyard lamp, street lamp, lantern, camping lamps, mountaineering lamp, fish lamp, black light lamp, tapping lights, energy-saving lamps, etc.

6. Photovoltaic power station: 10 kw - 50 mw independent photovoltaic power station, scenery complementary (wood), all kinds of large parking charging stations, etc.

7. Solar building: combining solar power and building materials, makes the future large construction self-sufficient in electric power, is a development direction in the future.

8. Other areas include: (1) and auto accessories: solar car/electric vehicles, battery charging equipment, automobile air conditioner, fan, cold box, etc.; (2) solar hydrogen fuel cell of renewable power generation systems; (3) seawater desalination equipment power supply; (4) satellite, spacecraft, space solar power stations, etc.

Electricity principle of editing

       Solar cell is a light have response and can convert light energy into electrical devices. Can produce the material, there are many kinds of photovoltaic effect, such as: monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, gallium arsenide, copper indium selenium, etc. Their power generation principle of basic same, now in crystalline silicon, for example to describe the light power generation process. P-type crystalline silicon after doped phosphorus available N type silicon, forming a p-n junction.

When light solar cell surface, part of photons absorbed by the silicon material; Photon energy transfer to the silicon atom, make the electronic transition happens, become free electrons in the p-n junction on both sides of the agglomeration formed the potential difference, when external processing circuit, under the action of the voltage, there will be a current through the external circuit to produce the output power. The essence of this process is: the process of the photon energy into electricity.

      一、solar power, solar power has two ways, one is light - heat - electricity conversion mode, the other is light - electric direct conversion approach.

           (1) light - heat - electricity conversion mode through the use of solar radiation produced by thermal, generally the heat energy is absorbed by the solar collector will turn Of substance into steam, and then to drive a turbine to generate electricity. The previous process is light - heat conversion process; After a process is the heat - electricity conversion process, like the normal thermal power. Solar thermal power generation of defect is low efficiency and high cost, estimated that its investment must be at least 5 ~ 10 times expensive than normal plants. A 1000 mw of solar thermal power plants need $20 to 2.5 billion, an average of 1 kw of investment of $2000 to $2500. Therefore, it is suitable for small special occasions, and large-scale use very uneconomical in terms of economy, also can't compete with common thermal or nuclear power plants.

           (2) light - electric direct conversion approach is the way using the photoelectric effect, convert solar radiation directly into electricity, light, electricity conversion device is the basic solar cells. Solar cell is a kind of effect by Yu Guangsheng volts and convert sunlight directly into electrical energy device, is a semiconductor photodiode, when the sun light to the photodiode, photodiode can turn the sun's light energy into electrical energy, an electrical current. When many cells in series or parallel up can become a larger output power of the solar cell phalanx. Solar cell is a promising new type of power supply, and permanent, clean and flexibility of the three major advantages. Solar battery life is long, as long as there is the sun, the solar cell can be an investment and long-term use; Compared with thermal power, nuclear power, solar cells will not cause environmental pollution; Solar cells can be medium, medium to million kilowatts of large power plant, small to only for

performance calculation

Solar ac power system consists of solar panels, charge controllers, inverter and battery; Solar energy is not including the inverter dc power system. In order to make the solar power system can provide enough power for load, must according to the use of electrical power, reasonable choose components. Below 100 w power output, with six hours a day, for example, introduce the calculation method:

1. Should first calculate the daily consumption of hours (including loss of inverter) : if the inverter conversion efficiency of 90%, when the output power is 100 w, the actual need output should be 100 w / 111 w = 90%; If according to the use of 5 hours a day, the output power of 111 w = 555 * 5 hours wh.

2. Calculate the solar panels: calculated on effective sunshine time is 6 hours a day, and the loss in the process of considering the charging efficiency and charging, the output power of solar panels should be 555 wh / 6 h / 70% = 130 w. 70% of whom are in the process of charging, the actual use power of the solar panels.

generating efficiency

Monocrystalline silicon solar photoelectric conversion efficiency of the highest reached 24%, this is the photoelectric conversion efficiency is highest in all types of solar cells. But the production cost of monocrystalline silicon solar cell is very large, so that it can't be extensive and widespread use. Polycrystalline silicon solar cells in terms of production cost is cheaper than monocrystalline silicon solar cells, but the polysilicon solar cells photoelectric conversion efficiency is to reduce a lot of, in addition, the service life of the polycrystalline silicon solar cell is shorter than monocrystalline silicon solar cells. Therefore, as for the price performance ratio, monocrystalline silicon solar cell is slightly better.

      The researchers found that there are some compound semiconductor materials suitable for solar energy photoelectric conversion film. Such as CdS, CdTe; Ⅲ -v compound semiconductor: GaAs, AIPInP etc. Made of the semiconductor thin film solar cells showed good photoelectric conversion efficiency. With gradient band gap of semiconductor material, can expand solar absorption spectrum, the photoelectric conversion efficiency can be improved. The thin film solar cells, a large number of actual application show broad prospects. In these diverse semiconductor material Cu (In, Ga) Se2 is a kind of excellent performance sunlight absorption material. On the basis of it can design of photoelectric conversion efficiency is higher than silicon obviously thin film solar cells, that can be achieved in photoelectric conversion rate of 18%.

service life

      The service life of solar panels by the cell, toughened glass, EVA and TPT material decisions, such as tend to use better materials manufacturers to make to the service life of the panels can reach 25 years, but with the influence of environment, the material of solar panels will be as the change of time and aging. In general use power attenuation 30% 20 years, for 25 years power attenuation 70%.

test method

      (1) because the output power of solar component depends on factors such as the solar irradiance and the solar cell temperature, so the solar energy battery components of measurement under the standard conditions hold (STC), a standard condition is defined as: AM1.5 atmosphere quality, illumination intensity 1000 w/m2, the temperature is 25 ℃. 

      (2) the open circuit voltage: use 500 w halogen tungsten lamp, 0 ~ 250 v ac transformer, set the light intensity of 3.8 ~ 40000 LUX, lamp and the distance of the test platform is about 15 to 20 cm, direct test values for the open circuit voltage; 

      (3) in this condition, the solar energy battery components the maximum power output is called the peak power, in many cases, the components of the determination of peak power usually use solar simulators. The main factors influencing the solar modules output performance is the following: 

             1) the load impedance 

             2) the intensity of sunlight 

             3) temperature 

             4) the shadow

detection and maintenance

      1, check whether there is any breakage on panels, to be found in time, change in time. 

      2, good panels cables and examine whether the ground contact, with or without falls off phenomenon. 

      3, check the wiring junction box place for fever phenomenon. 

      4, check whether there is any loosening and fracture on panels stents. 

      5, check the clear panels cover panels around the weeds. 

      6, look for cover panel surface. 

      7, check the panels on the surface of a bird droppings, cleaned up when necessary.

      8, identification of the cleaning degree of the panels. 

      9, high winds in the face of the panels and stent for review. 

     10, snow day in the face of the panels to clear in time, avoid panels surface snow freeze. 

     11, the rain should check whether all the sealing is good, have without slack phenomenon. 

     12, check for animals to plant to destroy panels. 

     13, hail weather should make key inspection for the surface of the panels. 

     14, to test the panel temperature, and ambient temperature

The new development

new coating 

Researchers rensselaer polytechnic institute in the United States in 2008 to develop a new type of coating, the cover on the solar panels can make the sunshine absorption rate increased to 96.2%, while the common solar panels of sunlight absorption rate of only 70% or so.

New coating mainly solves the two technical problems, one is to help the solar panels absorb almost all of the solar spectrum, 2 it is to make solar panels absorb sunlight from a larger Angle, so as to improve the efficiency of the solar panels absorb sunlight.

Ordinary solar panels, usually can only absorb part of the solar spectrum, but usually only when direct absorption of sunlight work efficiency is higher, so a lot of solar energy devices are equipped with automatic adjustment system, to ensure that the solar panels, always keep the most beneficial to absorb energy from the sun's Angle.


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